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Last week, one of my 12 year old students – a terrific WWII nut – asked me why the small island of Iwo Jima was such an important strategic hold when it was mostly rock, volcanic sand, and a non-functioning volcano. I emailed my friend, retired Army captain and current social studies teacher, Bill Hetzer, about this and while waiting for a response, did some research on my own.
Iwo Jima, 8 square miles (four long, two wide) was also an airfield for the Japanese. Our Marines landed February 19, 1945, among them, my great-great-uncle, 19 year old Glennard Daugherty. Unfortunately, Glennard was shot and killed by a sniper on February 25th as he rushed into open fire to rescue a fallen Marine.
This afternoon, I noticed that the Victoria Theatre, normally one of our houses that stages live theatre and touring companies, was presenting, as one of their “Hot Summer Movie Nights” the movie, The Sands Of Iwo Jima, starring John Wayne. Jose and I rode the bus downtown, ate a wonderful Chinese dinner, and entered the Victoria. The hydraulic stage was raised and a gentleman of considerable years was playing the organ – and what an organ! It was so reminiscent of those golden years, and I am so glad Jose got a taste of what my grandparents knew in their era. It was as though Lawrence Welk had been transported back to Dayton for the evening. I think, of all the adults, I brought the average age in the hall down to at least 70! Prior to the movie, we were all delighted with a Bugs Bunny & Elmer Fudd cartoon! In the movie were three of the men who had actually raised the flag on Mount Surabachi on Iwo Jima. I also learned from the program notes that when John Wayne placed his prints in the cement in front of Grauman’s Chinese Theatre, the cement was mixed with sand from the beaches of Iwo Jima.
About the movie…
The Depths of Stryker in Sands of Iwo Jima
by Rob Wilsey
Gary Wills writes of Sgt. Stryker, “Sgt. Stryker is still with us today… lurking in a thousand mens’ adolescent pasts… Wayne is the ideal to which no boy’s father, or coach, or teacher… can quite live up.”
It is this miss characterization that I want to address, the one dimensional analysis of social critics like Wills overlooks the vital sub text in the character of Stryker. Stryker is at base a tragic figure, and the film presents him as a counterpoint to his own ethos which had been used to fill the ideological vacuum of the war.
Contrary to popular belief many American’s didn’t know what they were fighting for in 1945, combat troops in particular learned quickly the hollowness of the catch phrases fed to the public about why the war was fought. “
The war seemed so devoid of ideological content that little could be said about its positive purposes that made political or intellectual sense especially after the Soviet Union joined.” American soldiers in the Pacific were motivated mainly by the desire to survive and the intense race hatred bred by both effective home front propaganda and the brutal nature of Japanese opposition. “
As the war drew on and casualties more numerous… there developed a sense that sheer pragmatic unverbalized action on behalf of the common cause would somehow substitute for formulations of purpose or meaning.”
Into this vacuum stepped films like the Why We Fight series of Frank Capra, and in 1949 Sands of Iwo Jima. Sands, on the surface, represented perfectly what journalist Robert Sherrod wrote while on Tarawa: “The Marines didn’t know what to believe in, except the Marine Corps.”
But the sub text of the film portrays this belief as the destructive force it is in the duality between Stryker and Conway.
Pvt. Conway (played by John Agar) says of Stryker “there goes the hard product of a hard school.” This is what Stryker is, the necessary evil; the man who sacrificed his home life (he is estranged from his wife and son) for the service of his country. But this is not the ideal being put forth in the film. The ideal in the film for the postwar audience is the character of Agar. “The implication is that Agar is the father we will need for the post war age, one who could give his son’s Shakespeare instead of the Marine manual.”
This is where Wills’ analysis fails, by neglecting the presentation of Stryker as a man who is by all measures (and we are told in the letter to his son, by his own as well) — a failure. He exists only for the war, and his sudden death at the end confirms this. The message to fill the ideological vacuum was that all the meanings of the war, all the exterminationist rhetoric that is curiously absent in the film — are obsolete, along with the hard men who fought it, “the suggestion is being made that men like Sgt. Stryker are needed when they are needed, but that they are not needed in peacetime, and peacetime is now.”
“The personal bond between leader and follower lies at the root of all explanations of what does and does not happen.” The bond between Stryker and his men, and between the viewer and Wayne is forged throughout the film, and when Wayne dies his ethos dies with him; he is at the root of all the meaning. The meaning he carries with him, the hardness of the war, the singular, pragmatic, nihilistic dedication: all that dies with Wayne. We are left in the end with John Agar, who said before “I’m a civilian, I’m in this strictly for tradition.” The man who would give his son Shakespeare speaks for all the men who fought and hoped their sons would live lives without Tarawa and Iwo Jima. Ultimately the character of Stryker is the representation of what was thought to be no longer needed, the film revolves so thoroughly around Wayne that one cannot, as Wills does, separate his death from the death of the message he carries.
More about the battle of Iwo Jima….
On Monday, February 19, 1945, U.S. Marines hit the sands of Iwo Jima. The battle for Iwo Jima can be described in many ways.Most simply, 70,000 Marines routed 22,0000 Japanese in a 36 day battle. It bore little resemblance to today’s’ modern warfare. It was a fight of gladiators. Gladiators in the catacombs of the Coliseum fighting among trap doors and hidden tunnels. Above ground gladiators using liquid gasoline to burn the underground gladiators out of their lethal hiding places.
The Marines had overwhelming force and controlled the sea and air. The Japanese had the most ingenious and deadly fortress in military history. The Marines had Esprit de Corps and felt they could not lose. The Japanese fought for their god-Emperor and felt they had to die fighting.
The Marines were projecting American offensive power thousands of miles from home shores with a momentum that would carry on to create the Century of the Pacific. The Japanese were fighting a tenacious defensive battle protecting the front door to their ancient land. The geography, topography and geology of the island guaranteed a deadly and bizarre battle. The large numbers of men and small size of the island ensured the fighting would be up close and vicious.
Almost one hundred thousand men would fight on a tiny island just eight square miles. Four miles by two miles. If you’re driving 60 miles an hour in your car, it takes you four minutes to drive four miles. It took the Marines 36 days to slog that four miles. Iwo Jima would be the most densely populated battlefield of the war with one hundred thousand combatants embraced in a death dance over an area smaller than one third the size of Manhattan island.
From the air the island looked like a bald slice of black moonscape shaped like a porkchop. All its foliage had been blown off by bombs. The only “life” visible on the island were puffs of “rotten egg” stinking sulphur fumes coming from vents that seemed connected to hell. Correspondents in airplanes could see tens of thousands of Marines on one side of the island fighting against a completely barren side of stone.
On foot it was a morass of soft volcanic sand or a jumble of jagged rock. The Marines sought protection in shell holes blasted by the bombardment. Foxholes were impossible to dig, either the sand collapsed in on you or your shovel failed to dent the hard obsidian floor. Bullets and mortars would come from nowhere to kill. The Marines would come across a cave or blockhouse and shoot and burn all its defenders to death. They would peer into the cavern and assure themselves no one was left there to hurt them. They’d move on only to be shocked when that “dead” position came alive again behind them. The Marines thoughtthey were fighting men in isolated caves and had no idea of the extensive tunnels below.
A surgeon would establish an operating theater in a safe place. With sandbags and tarp he’d build a little hospital and treat his patients away from the battle. Then at night when he lay down exhausted to sleep he’d hear foreign voices below him. Only when his frantic fingers clawed through the sand and hit the wooden roof of an underground cavern would he realize he had been living atop the enemy all along.
The days were full of fear and nights offered terror. The Marines were sleeping on ground that the Japanese had practiced how to crawl over in the darkness, they knew every inch. Imagine sleeping in a haunted man-sion where the owner is a serial murderer who knows the rooms and stairways and trapdoors by touch and you are new. Then you can imagine the tortured sleep of the Marines.
Experienced naval doctors had never seen such carnage. Japanese tanks and high caliber anti-aircraft guns hidden behind walls of rock and concrete ensured that the Marines would not just be cut down, but cutin half or blown to bits.A seventy five year old veteran of Iwo Jima would still reflexively open his bedroom window in 1999 after dreaming of the battle once again. Fifty four years after the battle the stench of death still filled his nostrils.
The bodies lay everywhere. Young boys who had never been to a funeral became accustomed to rolling another dead buddy aside. Kids full of life worked on burial duty unloading bodies from trucks stacked with death.
Mothers back home would tear open the ominous telegrams with trembling fingers. The survivors would remember sailing away and seeing the rows and rows of white crosses and stars of Davids. Almost seven thousand. Today there are still over six thousand Japanese dead still entombed under the island, dead where they fell in their tunnels and caves. Recently two hundred sixty were excavated, some mummified by the sulphur gases, their glasses sitting straight atop preserved noses, hair still on their heads.
Military geniuses predicted a three day battle, an “easy time.” Some of the nicest boys America would ever produce slogged on for thirty six days in what would be the worst battle in the history of the US Marine Corps.
Generals conferred over maps while tanks, airplanes, naval bombs and artillery pounded the island. But it was the individual Marine on the ground with a gun that won the battle. Marines without gladiator’s armor who would advance into withering fire. Marines who would not give up simply because they were Marines. A mint in Washington would cast more medals for these Iwo Jima heroes than for any group of fighters in America’s history.
America would embrace these heroes, but they were enthralled by an image of heroism, by a photo. Millions of words would be written in the US about 1/400th of a second no one on Iwo Jima thought worthy of remark at the time. Thousands would seek autographs from three survivors who felt “we hadn’t done much.” Battles would be fought over that image, some dying early because of their inclusion, some living bitterly because of their exclusion. But that would all come later. After two battles were fought on Iwo Jima, one for Mt. Suribachi and the southern part of the island the other for the northern part. And after one hundred thousand individual battles, personal battles of valor and fear, of determination and dirt.

1- I’d kill for a Nobel Peace Prize.
2- Borrow money from pessimists – they don’t expect it back.
3- Half the people you know are below average.
4- 99% of lawyers give the rest a bad name.
5- 42.7% of all statistics are made up on the spot.
6- A conscience is what hurts when all your other parts feel so good.
7- A clear conscience is usually the sign of a bad memory.
8- If you want the rainbow, you gotta put up with the rain.
9- All those who believe in psycho kinesis, raise my hand.
10- The early bird may get the worm, but the second mouse gets the cheese.
11- I almost had a psychic girlfriend, but she left me before we met.
12- OK, so what’s the speed of dark?
13- How do you tell when you’re out of invisible ink?
14- If everything seems to be going well, you have obviously overlooked something.
15- Depression is merely anger without enthusiasm.
16- When everything is coming your way, you’re in the wrong lane.
17- Ambition is a poor excuse for not having enough sense to be lazy.
18- Hard work pays off in the future, laziness pays off now.
19- I intend to live forever; so far, so good.
20- If Barbie is so popular, why do you have to buy her friends?
21- Eagles may soar, but weasels don’t get sucked into jet engines.
22- What happens if you get scared half to death twice?
23- My mechanic told me, “I couldn’t repair your brakes, so I made your horn louder.”
24- Why do psychics have to ask you for your name?
25- If at first you don’t succeed, destroy all evidence that you tried.
26- A conclusion is the place where you got tired of thinking.
27- Experience is something you don’t get until just after you need it.
28- The hardness of the butter is proportional to the softness of the bread.
29- To steal ideas from one person is plagiarism; to steal from many is research.
30- The problem with the gene pool is that there is no lifeguard.
31- The sooner you fall behind, the more time you’ll have to catch up.
32- The colder the x-ray table, the more of your body is required to be on it.
33- Everyone has a photographic memory; some just don’t have film.

And…

34- If your car could travel at the speed of light, would your headlights work?

Monday I received an Email from a student’s parent regarding a reschedule due to the mother needing to leave town for her cousin’s memorial service in Chicago. I responded with a few words of condolence, and learned shortly thereafter that her first cousin was famed college football coach, Randy Walker, who recently died of a heart attack. Yesterday afternoon, following my student’s lesson, I spoke with her mother for some time, and shared with her a few words in an Email from my brother regarding his respect for Randy as a coach, more importantly, as a teacher. I learned from the parent that Randy and his wife were eagerly awaiting the arrival of their first grandchild.

From the internet…

Northwestern University football coach Randy Walker has died of an apparent heart attack, the school announced early Friday. He was 52.

Mike Wolf, Northwestern’s assistant athletic director for media services, said Walker died suddenly at about 10 p.m. Thursday after experiencing chest pains at his suburban Chicago home.
“This is a devastating loss, not only for our athletic program, but for the entire Northwestern community,” Northwestern Director of Athletics Mark Murphy said in a statement released by the school.
“Randy truly embraced Northwestern and its mission, and cared deeply for his student-athletes, both on and off the field.”
Two months ago, Northwestern gave Walker a four-year extension through the 2011 season. He joined the school in 1999 after nine years at Miami of Ohio.Walker’s Wildcats posted 37 wins, going 7-5 last season. He led the team to three bowl games since 2000, including a 50-38 loss to UCLA in Sun Bowl in December.Northwestern shared the Big Ten title in 2000. Walker was the first Wildcats coach to guide the team to four seasons with at least six wins since C.M. Hollister in 1899-1902.
In October 2004, Walker checked himself into a hospital after experiencing chest pains before his weekly football season news conference. He was hospitalized with an inflammation of the heart muscle, known as myocarditis, that usually is caused by a virus.
When Randy Walker was hired as Northwestern’s football coach in 1999, one of his goals was to field a team that could regularly contend for a postseason bowl berth. Now in his eighth year, and coming off three successive seasons of six or more wins — the first time Northwestern has accomplished that in 74 years — Walker has the Wildcats achieving one of his program’s missions.

“We want to be competitive on an annual basis and put our program in position to play for something in November, whether that be for a Big Ten title or a bowl berth,” says Walker. “We’ve been able to do that the past few seasons.”

Here are some of the other firsts for Walker, who is now the second winningest coach in Northwestern history:

• first NU football coach to own victories over all 10 Big Ten Conference foes
• first NU coach since C.M. Hollister (1899-1902) to record four six-or-more win seasons
• first NU coach to beat Ohio State in Evanston since 1958, and the first to beat the Buckeyes since 1971
• first NU coach to beat Penn State at Beaver Stadium

Perhaps more important than his on-field achievements, Walker has accepted the AFCA’s Academic Achievement Award three of the past four years (2002, 2004 and 2005). Northwestern, which annually touts a graduation rate of 90 percent or better, had 100-percent rates for those years.

Walker came to Northwestern after serving as the head football coach at Miami (Ohio) University for nine seasons. The 51-year-old departed Oxford as the winningest head coach in school history with a mark of 59-35-5 (.621) — a great honor considering the list of coaches who had gone before him. Dubbed the “Cradle of Coaches,” Miami has produced such football legends as Earl “Red” Blaik, Paul Brown, Carmen Cozza, Sid Gillman, Weeb Ewbank, Woody Hayes, Bill Mallory, Ara Parseghian, Bo Schembechler and Dick Crum, to name a few.

While at Miami, Walker did not shy away from scheduling quality competition. In his last two seasons at Miami, the RedHawks recorded nonconference wins over Army (38-14 in 1997, 14-13 in 1998), Virginia Tech (24-17) and North Carolina (13-10). In 1995, Miami handed Northwestern its only regular-season loss when the RedHawks upset NU, 30-28, during the Wildcats’ Rose Bowl season.

Prior to his assistant coaching days at NU, Walker spent 10 seasons (1978-87) at the University of North Carolina. In 1985, he was named offensive coordinator and quarterbacks coach for the Tar Heels after spending the previous seven campaigns as the running backs (1978-81) and quarterbacks (1982-87) coach. Walker coached in six postseason games at UNC, and the Tar Heels went 4-2 in those games, beating Michigan in the Gator Bowl (1979), Texas in the Bluebonnet Bowl (1980), Arkansas in the Gator Bowl (1981), and Texas in the Sun Bowl (1982). The two losses came at the hands of Florida State in the Peach Bowl (1983) and Arizona in the Aloha Bowl (1986).

A native of Troy, Ohio, Walker graduated from Miami University in 1976 with a B.A. in social studies education and, in 1981, earned his master’s degree in education administration.

Following his graduation from Miami in 1976, Walker was drafted by the Cincinnati Bengals, and after a short stint with them he returned to Oxford to help as a graduate assistant. The following year he became a full-time assistant in charge of running backs.

Walker is married to the former Tamara Weikert. The couple has two children — Abbey, 28, and Jamie (NU, ’04), 25, who serves as a football recruiting assistant at Northwestern, and a son-in-law, Brian Boudreau. They reside in Evanston.

Unless you know all four stanzas of the Star Spangled Banner you may find this most interesting. Bet most of you didn’t realize what Francis Scott Key’s profession was or what he was doing on a ship. This is a good brush-up on your history.

“NO REFUGE COULD SAVE,” BY DR. ISAAC ASIMOV

Near the end of his life the great science fiction author Isaac Asimov wrote a short story about the four stanzas of our national anthem. However brief, this well-circulated piece is an eye opener from the dearly departed doctor…

I have a weakness — I am crazy absolutely nuts, about our national anthem. The words are difficult and the tune is almost impossible, but frequently when I’m taking a shower I sing it with as much power and emotion as I can. It shakes me up every time.

I was once asked to speak at a luncheon. Taking my life in my hands, I announced I was going to sing our national anthem — all four stanzas. This was greeted with loud groans. One man closed the door to the kitchen, where the noise of dishes and cutlery was loud and distracting. “Thanks, Herb,” I said.

That’s all right,” he said. “It was at the request of the kitchen staff.”

I explained the background of the anthem and then sang all four stanzas. Let me tell you, those people had never heard it before — or had never really listened. I got a standing ovation. But it was not me; it was the anthem.

More recently, while conducting a seminar, I told my students the story of the anthem and sang all four stanzas. Again there was a wild ovation and prolonged applause. And again, it was the anthem and not me.

So now let me tell you how it came to be written.

In 1812, the United States went to war with Great Britain , primarily over freedom of the seas. We were in the right. For two years, we held off the British, even though we were still a rather weak country. Great Britain was in a life and death struggle with Napoleon. In fact, just as the United States declared war, Napoleon marched off to invade Russia . If he won, as everyone expected, he would control Europe, and Great Britain would be isolated. It was no time for her to be involved in an American war.

At first, our seamen proved better than the British. After we won a battle on Lake Erie in 1813, the American commander, Oliver Hazard Perry, sent the message, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.” However, the weight of the British navy beat down our ships eventually. New England , hard-hit by a tightening blockade, threatened secession.

Meanwhile, Napoleon was beaten in Russia and in 1814 was forced to abdicate. Great Britain now turned its attention to the United States , launching a three-pronged attack.

“The northern prong was to come down Lake Champlain toward New York and seize parts of New England .

The southern prong was to go up the Mississippi , take New Orleans and paralyze the west.

The central prong was to head for the Mid-Atlantic States and then attack Baltimore , the greatest port south of New York . If Baltimore was taken, the nation, which still hugged the Atlantic coast, could be split in two. The fate of the United States , then, rested to a large extent on the success or failure of the central prong.

The British reached the American coast, and on August 24, 1814, took Washington , D.C. Then they moved up the Chesapeake Bay toward Baltimore . On September 12, they arrived and found 1,000 men in Fort McHenry , whose guns controlled the harbor. If the British wished to take Baltimore , they would have to take the fort.

On one of the British ships was an aged physician, William Beanes, who had been arrested in Maryland and brought along as a prisoner. Francis Scott Key, a lawyer and friend of the physician, had come to the ship to negotiate his release.

The British captain was willing, but the two Americans would have to wait. It was now the night of September 13, and the bombardment of Fort McHenry was about to start.

As twilight deepened, Key and Beanes saw the American flag flying over Fort McHenry . Through the night, they heard bombs bursting and saw the red glare of rockets. They knew the fort was resisting and the American flag was still flying. But toward morning the bombardment ceased, and a dread silence fell. Either Fort McHenry had surrendered and the British flag flew above it, or the bombardment had failed and the American flag still flew.

As dawn began to brighten the eastern sky, Key and Beanes stared out at the fort, trying to see which flag flew over it. He and the physician must have asked each other over and over, “Can you see the flag?”

After it was all finished, Key wrote a four stanza poem telling the events of the night. Called “The Defense of Fort McHenry,” it was published in newspapers and swept the nation. Someone noted that the words fit an old English tune called, “To Anacreon in Heaven” — a difficult melody with an uncomfortably large vocal range. For obvious reasons, Key’s work became known as “The Star Spangled Banner,” and in 1931 Congress declared it the official anthem of the United States .

Now that you know the story, here are the words. Presumably, the old doctor is speaking. This is what he asks Key:

Oh! say, can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket’s red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof thro’ the night that our flag was still there.
Oh! say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave,
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

“Ramparts,” in case you don’t know, are the protective walls or other elevations that surround a fort. The first stanza asks a question. The second gives an answer:

On the shore, dimly seen thro’ the mist of the deep,
Where the foe’s haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o’er the towering steep.
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning’s first beam,
In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream
‘Tis the star-spangled banner. Oh! long may it wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

“The towering steep” is again, the ramparts. The bombardment has failed, and the British can do nothing more but sail away, their mission a failure. In the third stanza, I feel Key allows himself to gloat over the American triumph. In the aftermath of the bombardment, Key probably was in no mood to act otherwise.

During World War II, when the British were our staunchest allies, this third stanza was not sung. However, I know it, so here it is:

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle’s confusion
A home and a country should leave us no more?
Their blood has washed out their foul footstep’s pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave,
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

The fourth stanza, a pious hope for the future, should be sung more slowly than the other three and with even deeper feeling:

Oh! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved homes and the war’s desolation,
Blest with victory and peace, may the Heaven – rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
Then conquer we must, for our cause is just,
And this be our motto –“In God is our trust.”
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

I hope you will look at the national anthem with new eyes. Listen to it, the next time you have a chance, with new ears. Pay attention to the words. And don’t let them ever take it away …. not one word of it!

I got to thinking today about one of my former student’s grandmother, Molly McClure. Born as Mary Ella Karnes, in 1919, in Kentucky, her mother passed away a week after she was born and she was adopted by an uncle and his wife. She was always attracted to acting and the stage and co-founded a theater company in her hometown of Paducah,Kentucky. She is divorced from Rush McClure. She raised three daughters on her own. When her youngest daughter graduated from high school and went away to college, she moved to Los Angeles to pursue her lifelong dream of becoming an actress on the stage and screen. She retired from the acting business and moved to Texas with her oldest daughter, where she still lives. The highlight of her life is getting recognized for her work when she goes out in public.

Molly originated the role of Mama Wheelis in Daddy’s Dyin’ Who’s Got The Will?, in Los Angeles, followed by a run at the Edinburgh Drama Festival and the MGM movie. Other stage credits include Ada Lester (Tobacco Road) and Mrs. Mavis (The Traveling Lady) both of which earned her the L.A. Drama-Logue awards. She played Hank Williams’ Mama Lillie in the Mark Taper Forum Production of Lost Highway.

She is frequently recognized in Texas as George Strait’s Grandma Ivey in Pure Country. She was the Rancher’s wife in City Slickers I and II, and a prospective nanny in Mrs. Doubtfire.

She played Naomie on The Young and the Restless (1991 – 1992 season) and had guest appearances on Evening Shade, Jack’s Place, Murphy Brown, Murder She Wrote, Quantum Leap, Northern Exposure, Picket Fences and Walker Texas Rangers.

She is Caliope’s Mother in the just released Wishbone video Dog Days of the West and was seen in The Patriot starring Steven Seagal.

Molly McClure, is the mother of Mickie Norfleet (former piano student) and grandmother of Erin Norfleet (former voice, piano, acting student; directed Erin in several shows).

Actress – filmography
The Patriot (1998/I) …. Molly
Finding North (1998) …. Aunt Bonnie
“Walker, Texas Ranger”Rainbow’s End (1997) TV Episode …. Sally Calhoun – Case Closed (1995) TV Episode …. Elderly Woman
“Dead Man’s Walk” (1996) (mini) TV Series …. Old lady in Austin… aka Larry McMurtry’s Dead Man’s Walk
Under the Hula Moon (1995) …. Grandmother
“Northern Exposure”The Big Mushroom (1995) TV Episode …. Elli Thompson
City Slickers II: The Legend of Curly’s Gold (1994) …. Millie Stone… aka City Slickers II (USA: short title) … aka City Slickers: The Legend of Curly’s Gold (UK)
“Picket Fences”System Down (1994) TV Episode …. Mrs. Bayles
A Gift from Heaven (1994)
Mrs. Doubtfire (1993) …. Housekeeper
Precious Victims (1993) (TV) …. Trudy
“When Love Kills: The Seduction of John Hearn” (1993) (mini) TV Series …. Marjorie
Tainted Blood (1993) (TV) …. Lucille
“Murphy Brown”A Year to Remember (1992) TV Episode …. Volunteer #1
Pure Country (1992) …. Grandma Ivy Chandler
Final Shot: The Hank Gathers Story (1992) (TV) …. Cashier
In Sickness and in Health (1992) (TV) …. Rhonda… aka Hearts on Fire
“The Torkelsons”I Fought the Law (1991) TV Episode …. Gertrude Perkins
City Slickers (1991) …. Millie Stone
“Quantum Leap”8 1/2 Months – November 15, 1955 (1991) TV Episode …. Mrs. Suffy
“Murder, She Wrote”Trials and Tribulations (1990) TV Episode …. Hester
Daddy’s Dyin’… Who’s Got the Will? (1990) …. Mama Wheelis
Everybody’s Baby: The Rescue of Jessica McClure (1989) (TV)
The Women of Brewster Place (1989) (TV) …. White Woman
Winnie (1988) (TV) …. Farm Woman
Arthur 2: On the Rocks (1988) (as Molly Mc Clure) …. Greta
Moving (1988) …. Puzzle Lady
Mistress (1987) (TV) …. Rae’s Aunt

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